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What are Microcontrollers and Their Functionalities?

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A microcontroller is said to be an integrated compact circuit that is specially designed to deliver certain operations as specified in an embedded system. When you see a microcontroller it has a processor along with a memory and input/output peripherals which are assembled on a single chip. 

The microcontroller unit (MCU) is also sometimes referred to as an embedded controller which is mainly found in robots, office machines, vehicles, vending machines, medical devices, mobile radio transceivers, and more. It is mainly designed to accomplish and control the small and required features of large devices where there is no complex front-end operating system.

The functioning of the microcontroller

 In any system, a microcontroller is embedded to have control of a particular function in any device. This job is done by interpreting the data which is received by its I/O peripherals through the help of the central processor. 

All the temporary memory is stored in the data memory after it is received in the microcontroller. This memory is then accessed by the processor and then uses the program memory instructions to decipher the incoming data. After this process, finally, it uses its I/O peripherals to take into action the appropriate function. 

There are so many devices where microcontrollers are used in today’s era and it is a very useful thing for your device to run smoothly. Sometimes, in a device, multiple microcontrollers perform the respective tasks by working together in the system. 

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For example, if we consider a car you can see that it is running on many microcontrollers that are interconnected with each other in the system. It includes the anti-lock braking system, fuel injection, traction control, and more. By communicating with each other they inform which action is to be performed. 

The elements of the microcontroller

The following are the core elements of the microcontroller which helps it in conducting the right tasks:

  • The processor or the CPU 

it is said to be the brain of the microcontroller which is responsible for responding to the instructions through which its functions are directed correctly. 

  • The memory 

Memory is nothing but the place where the data received from the processor is stored and responds to the programmed instructions for which the microcontroller is designed. It has two main types of memory that are the program memory and data memory. 

  • I/O peripherals

The input peripheral is the one that is responsible for receiving the data and sending it in binary form to the processor while the output peripheral receives the necessary instructions from the processor and executes the tasks.

These three are the defining elements of a microcontroller that plays a major role in its functioning but also it has other elements in it which help in conducting the right task. 

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